From 1137, when Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona was betrothed to Petronila, queen of Aragon, Catalonia and Aragon were united under the same ruler. The native name, Catalunya, is pronounced [kətəˈluɲə] in Central Catalan, the most widely spoken variety, whose pronunciation is considered standard. There is no obligation to display this information in either Occitan or Spanish, although there is no restriction on doing so in these or other languages. After a period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. [111] That year, the GDP growth was 2.3%. [55][56] It was declared illegal and suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain, because it breached the 1978 Constitution. [109] On 14 July 2010 the Catalan Parliament approved the creation of the functional area of the Penedès.[110]. Catalonia and the Catalan people are defined as a. Sovereign of the County of Barcelona and later, by recognition and extension, of the Principality of Catalonia, from the 10th century up to the 18th century. FANDOM. Despite the ban during the first years and the difficulties of the next period, publishing in Catalan continued throughout his rule.[50]. Worn first by Josep Maria Forn or Bigas Luna, then by Marc Recha, Jaime Rosales and Albert Serra, this genre has achieved some international recognition. Epidemic curves were characterised for the 2010-2011 to 2019-2020 influenza seasons. There are several UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Catalonia: The oldest surviving literary use of the Catalan language is considered to be the religious text known as Homilies d'Organyà, written either in late 11th or early 12th century. In 1992, Barcelona hosted the Summer Olympic Games. In retaliation for the betrayal, and inspired by the French absolutist style of government, the first Bourbon king introduced the Nueva Planta decrees, that incorporated the lands of the Crown of Aragon, including the Principality of Catalonia, as provinces under the Crown of Castile in 1716, terminating their separate institutions, laws and rights, as well as their pactist politics, within a united kingdom of Spain. The populated areas lying by the coast in Tarragona, Barcelona and Girona provinces feature a Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa). Create or edit article. The havaneres are characteristic in some marine localities of the Costa Brava, especially during the summer months when these songs are sung outdoors accompanied by a cremat of burned rum. Between 1347 and 1497 Catalonia lost 37 percent of its population. Elevation ranges from 200 to 600 metres (660 to 1,970 feet). Faced with this problems, Catalan authorities initiated several measures whose purpose is to protect natural ecosystems. [35] During the reign of his son, John II, social and political tensions caused the Catalan Civil War (1462–1472). Here they installed a number of counts that should prevent the Saracen expansion and their … Present. Kleiner-Liebau, D. "Migration and the Construction of National Identity in Spain (Frankfurt: Vervuert)." The ‘cradle’ of Catalonia. In 803 the Franks named Bera, a Gothic tycoon, the first Count of Barcelona. Overview. Catalonia is the autonomous community, along with Madrid, that has the most media (TV, Magazines, Newspapers etc.). [117] Catalonia's debt in 2012 was the highest of all Spain's autonomous communities,[118] reaching €13,476 million, i.e. The four provinces and their populations are:[106]. [87] According to the CEO opinion poll from July 2016, 47.7% of Catalans would vote for independence and 42.4% against it while, about the question of preferences, according to the CEO opinion poll from March 2016, a 57.2 claim to be "absolutely" or "fairly" in favour of independence. Apply. The flag of Catalonia is called the senyera, a Catalan word meaning "a signal". Often the dish is accompanied with any number of sausages (cured botifarres, fuet, iberic ham, etc. Other large species such as the bear have been recently reintroduced. (2009). The law ensures that both Catalan and Spanish – being official languages – can be used by the citizens without prejudice in all public and private activities,. The rejection to French dominion was institutionalized with the creation of "juntas" (councils) who, remaining loyal to the Bourbons, exercised the sovereignty and representation of the territory due to the disappearance of the old institutions. There's a National Park, Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici; fourteen Natural Parks, Alt Pirineu, Aiguamolls de l'Empordà, Cadí-Moixeró, Cap de Creus, Sources of Ter and Freser, Collserola, Ebro Delta, Ports, Montgrí, Medes Islands and Baix Ter, Montseny, Montserrat, Sant Llorenç del Munt and l'Obac, Serra de Montsant and the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone; as well as three Natural Places of National Interest (Paratge Natural d'Interes Nacional or PNIN), the Pedraforca, the Poblet Forest and the Albères. The territor y was supposed to protect the French Empire from the Islamic invasions. The counts, through marriage, alliances and treaties, acquired the other Catalan counties and … military rebellion against the Republican government in Barcelona, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, sentenced several Catalan political leaders, 25 November 2012 Catalan parliamentary election, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia, unilateral declaration of independence in 2017, List of country subdivisions by GDP over 100 billion US dollars, Centre of Contemporary Culture of Barcelona, Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí, Catalonia became another Spanish territory to forbid bullfighting, Conservatori Superior de Música del Liceu, Museum of Cinema - Tomàs Mallol Collection, Fédération Internationale de Rugby Amateur,, "Indicadors geogràfics. Engraver: Jean Warin. Spring and autumn are typically the rainiest seasons, except for the Pyrenean valleys, where summer is typically stormy. Romanticism and Industrialization. It snows frequently in the Pyrenees, and it occasionally snows at lower altitudes, even by the coastline. The local nobility constructed fortresses from which they exercised autonomous control and created a network of local feudal systems. Ramon Berenguer I Comte de … The Urban Region of Barcelona includes 5,217,864 people and covers an area of 2,268 km2 (876 sq mi). In November 2003, elections to the Parliament of Catalonia gave the government to a left-wing catalanist coalition formed by the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC-PSOE), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV), and the socialist Pasqual Maragall was appointed president. The earliest known use of the name "Catalonia" for these counties dates to 1117. Anuari estadístic de Catalunya. Art music was first developed, up to the nineteenth century and, as in much of Europe, in a liturgical setting, particularly marked by the Escolania de Montserrat. Recovery from the war damage was slow and made more difficult by the international trade embargo and the autarkic politics of Franco's regime. Províncies", "Extranjeros con certificado de registro o tarjeta de residencia en vigor. [113][114][115] Catalonia's rating is tied for worst with between 1 and 5 other autonomous communities of Spain, depending on the rating agency.[115]. The first begins with the historiographic chronicles of the 13th century (chronicles written between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries narrating the deeds of the monarchs and leading figures of the Crown of Aragon) and the subsequent Golden Age of the 14th and 15th centuries. Since the Middle Ages, Catalonia has been well integrated into international maritime networks. The next two centuries were spent consolidating their territory and pushing the Moors south towards the Ebro, and in 1137 Count Ramon Berenguer IV married Petronella, the infant daughter of the King of Aragon. An example of such settlements would be La Draga, an "early Neolithic village which dates from the end of the 6th millennium BC."[27]. During the last steps of the Dictatorship, Barcelona celebrated the 1929 International Exposition,[43] while Spain began to suffer an economical crisis. There are 12,000 kilometres (7,500 mi) of roads throughout Catalonia. Extranjeros con tarjeta de residencia. Facebook Twitter Pinterest. The main tourist destinations in Catalonia are the city of Barcelona, the beaches of the Costa Brava in Girona, the beaches of the Costa del Maresme and Costa del Garraf from Malgrat de Mar to Vilanova i la Geltrú and the Costa Daurada in Tarragona. There are at present 948 municipalities (municipis) in Catalonia. Catalunya", "Diario Periodista Digital, Spanish Only", p. 13: Catalan Deputy of Education Ernest Maragall declares respect from the Catalan Government to Spanish language and to everyone's rights, "Catalan, Basque and Galician get EU language boost", "High Level Group on Multilingualism – Final Report: from the Commission of the European Communities in which Catalan immersion is taken as an example which "should be disseminated throughout the Union" (p. 18)", "Second article of Catalonia's linguistic law", "Ninth article of Catalonia's Linguistic Law", "DESCOBRIR LES LLENGÜES DE LA IMMIGRACIÓ", "Árabe y urdu aparecen entre las lenguas habituales de Catalunya, creando peligro de guetos", "El Blog de Antonio Sabadell - Blog Personal", "Cinema law: rude case to not dub and subtitle all films in Catalan", "La nova llei del cinema elimina les quotes de doblatge en català", "La Plataforma per la Llengua denuncia en un informe 40 casos greus de discriminació lingüística a les administracions públiques ocorreguts els darrers anys", "Alicia Sánchez-Camacho responde en 'Tengo una pregunta para usted, "El PPC va votar a favor d´un reglament sobre el català - Regió7. The main east coast line runs through the province connecting with the SNCF (French Railways) at Portbou on the coast. During this period there was a spectacular growth of industry and tourism in Catalonia that drew large numbers of workers to the region from across Spain and made the area around Barcelona into one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas. The defeat of the Republican army in the Battle of the Ebro led in 1938 and 1939 to the occupation of Catalonia by Franco's forces. [101][102][103][104], The Catalan Statute of Autonomy establishes that Catalonia is organised politically through the Generalitat of Catalonia (in Catalan: Generalitat de Catalunya), conformed by the Parliament, the Presidency of the Generalitat, the Government or Executive Council and the other institutions created by the Parliament, among them the Ombudsman (Síndic de Greuges), the Office of Auditors (Sindicatura de Comptes) or the Council for Statutory Guarantees (Consell de Garanties Estatutàries). Chronologically, `Carolingian Catalonia' extended from Charle- magne's 778 expedition, through the region's domination by Carolin- gian rulers, until the time of Wifred the Hairy (count 870±897/8), the last count of Barcelona appointed by a Carolingian monarch.6 By the end of the ninth century, and especially during the tenth, Catalan counts became increasingly autonomous as Carolingian power waned. The 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia establishes the administrative organisation of three local authorities: vegueries, comarques, and municipalities. Another major plain is the Empordà, located in the northeast. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia (or Gauthia) Launia ("Land of the Goths"), since the origins of the Catalan counts, lords and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Cathalaunia > Catalonia theoretically derived. Born in Liège, Varin moved to Paris in 1626. Any 2010", "Ley 16/1990, de 13 de julio, sobre el régimen especial del Valle de Arán", Aprovació del Pla territorial parcial de l'Alt Pirineu i Aran, "El Parlament reconeix l'àmbit funcional del Penedès", "Comparar Comunidades Autónomas Madrid vs Cataluña 2020", "Catalunya mantiene el papel de locomotora de España en el 2018", "S&P mantiene la deuda de Cataluña en "bono basura, "Standard & Poor's degrada la calificación de Catalunya a 'bono basura, "Rating: Calificación de la deuda de las Comunidades Autónomas", "Barcelona, la octava mejor ciudad del mundo para vivir y trabajar", "BBVA no descarta que la economía catalana caiga un 2% • ELPAÍ". "La Draga (Banyoles, Catalonia), an Early Neolithic Lakeside Village in Mediterranean Europe. "First article of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. The national bodies retain personnel within Catalonia to exercise functions of national scope such as overseeing ports, airports, coasts, international borders, custom offices, the identification of documents and arms control, immigration control, terrorism prevention, arms trafficking prevention, amongst others. The defeat of the military rebellion against the Republican government in Barcelona placed Catalonia firmly in the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War. The Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned seven former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries. The Catalan territory is divided into three main geomorphological units:[71]. [166], In Catalonia, there is a high social and political consensus on the language policies favoring Catalan, also among Spanish speakers and speakers of other languages. [13] In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon. Franco's regime banned the use of Catalan in government-run institutions and during public events, and also the Catalan institutions of self-government were abolished. [48], During later stages of Francoist Spain, certain folkloric and religious celebrations in Catalan resumed and were tolerated. The Coastal Range is both the shorter and the lower of the two, while the Pre-Coastal is greater in both length and elevation. It has been an official symbol since the Statute of Catalonia of 1932. It is situated on the northeastern corner of Iberian Peninsula and is voted as an ethnic group by its statute of autonomy. The caganer is so popular it has, together with the tió, long been a major part of the Christmas markets, where they come in the guise of your favorite politicians or other famous people, as well as the traditional figures of a Catalan farmer. Detailed information about the coin Louis d'or, Louis XIII (Count of Catalonia), France, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, metal, weight, size, value and other numismatic data Població de 2 anys i més. [41] The French troops evacuated Catalan territory at the end of 1814. Due to the intense immigration which Spain in general and Catalonia in particular experienced in the first decade of the 21st century, many foreign languages are spoken in various cultural communities in Catalonia, of which Rif-Berber,[164] Moroccan Arabic, Romanian[165] and Urdu are the most common ones. [82] Other polls have shown lower support for independence, ranging from 40 to 49%. Church of Santa Maria de Mur Conquered … The Crown of Aragon, which began in the 12th century, was a union of the kingdoms and lands of Aragon and Catalonia at first, based on a matrimony, that of the count of Barcelona, Ramon Berenguer, to the daughter of the King of Aragon, Petronilla, in 1134, the betrothal, and the marriage a few years later. The distribution of sectors is as follows:[121]. [88][89] Other polls have shown lower support for independence, ranging from 40 to 49%. The Counts of Catalonia. Average on all counts - See 3,426 traveller reviews, 1,781 candid photos, and great deals for Catalonia Barcelona Plaza at Tripadvisor. The Spanish newspapers, such as El País, El Mundo or La Razón, can be also acquired. [1], In the context of the financial crisis of 2007–2008, Catalonia was expected to suffer a recession amounting to almost a 2% contraction of its regional GDP in 2009. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the institutions of Catalan autonomy continued to develop, among them an autonomous police force (Mossos d'Esquadra, in 1983),[51] and the broadcasting network Televisió de Catalunya and its first channel TV3, created in 1983. – in Europe (green & dark grey)– in Spain (green), Catalonia (/ˌkætəˈloʊniə/; Catalan: Catalunya [kətəˈluɲə, kataˈluɲa]; Aranese Occitan: Catalonha [kataˈluɲa];[8] Spanish: Cataluña [kataˈluɲa]) is an autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Noucentisme. [32] The Courts were composed of the three Estates, were presided over by the king of Aragon, and approved the constitutions, which created a compilation of rights for the citizenship of the Principality. This policy, known as the "linguistic normalisation" (normalització lingüística in Catalan, normalización lingüística in Spanish) has been supported by the vast majority of Catalan political parties through the last thirty years. 266,938 Pages. The journey between Barcelona and Madrid now takes about two-and-a-half hours. And the demand for a sovereign state o f the Catalan nation goes back to this time. The fight between the houses of Bourbon and Habsburg for the Spanish Crown split Spain and Europe. The Coat of arms of Catalonia is based on four red pallets on gold background which have been used since the Middle Ages on several coats of arms. The Catalan branch of the People's Party has a more ambiguous position on the issue: on one hand, it demands a bilingual Catalan–Spanish education and a more balanced language policy that would defend Catalan without favoring it over Spanish,[174] whereas on the other hand, a few local PP politicians have supported in their municipalities measures privileging Catalan over Spanish[175] and it has defended some aspects of the official language policies, sometimes against the positions of its colleagues from other parts of Spain.[176]. Flags are a constant point of contention between Catalonia’s number one football club and Spanish sports authorities. This is accompanied by a certain agricultural abandonment (decrease of 15% of all areas cultivated in Catalonia between 1993 and 2009) and a global threat to natural environment. After the electoral victory of the Popular Front in February 1936, the Government of Catalonia was pardoned and the self-government restored. The Sarmatians: 600 BC-AD 450 (Men-at-Arms) by Richard Brzezinski and Gerry Embleton, 19 August 2002. For a century the County was ruled directly by the Frank counts. Count of Cervera Principality of Catalonia Nobility Coat of arms, crown, rectangle, logo, arm png Provincias", "Población extranjera por Nacionalidad, comunidades, Sexo y Año", "Baròmetre sobre la religiositat i sobre la gestió de la seva diversitat 2016", Quick data from the 2016 barometer of Catalonia, "Baròmetre sobre la religiositat i sobre la gestió de la seva diversitat", Quick data from the 2014 barometer of Catalonia, "Idescat. The Counts of Catalonia. In 1258, by means of the Treaty of Corbeil, James I of Aragon King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona, king of Mallorca and of Valencia, renounced his family rights and dominions in Occitania and recognised the king of France as heir of the Carolingian Dynasty. The unemployment rate stood at 10.5% in 2019 and was lower than the national average.[126]. Romanticism and Industrialization. Most of Catalonia was reconquered by the Spanish Monarchy but Catalan rights were recognised. Agricultural yields rose as a result of an increase in cultivation and … Search terms . At the same time, the Principality of Catalonia developed a complex institutional and political system based in the concept of a pact between the estates of the realm and the king. The president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (in Catalan: president de la Generalitat de Catalunya) is the highest representative of Catalonia, and is also responsible of leading the government's action. The Pyrenean peaks have a continental (Köppen D) or even Alpine climate (Köppen ET) at the highest summits, while the valleys have a maritime or oceanic climate sub-type (Köppen Cfb). No matter what the future holds for Catalonia, h ere are six Catalonian flags you need to know. The Catalan coast is almost rectilinear, with a length of 580 kilometres (360 mi) and few landforms—the most relevant are the Cap de Creus and the Gulf of Roses to the north and the Ebro Delta to the south. [34] In 1410, King Martin I died without surviving descendants. Primera llengua parlada diferent del català/castellà segons família lingüística i llengua. However, the power of the other counts in Catalonia strengthened as Barcelona´s central authority weakened after the death of Comte … Catalonia has a marked geographical diversity, considering the relatively small size of its territory. In 1137, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona decided to accept King Ramiro II of Aragon's proposal to marry Queen Petronila, establishing the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon, creating the Crown of Aragon and making the Catalan counties that were united under the county of Barcelona into a principality of the Aragonese Crown. In Catalonia and the territories of the counts of Barcelona, art flowered in the early Middle Ages and continued to flourish through the Renaissance. The Bronze Age coincided with the arrival of the Indo-Europeans through the Urnfield Culture, whose successive waves of migration began around 1200 BC, and they were responsible for the creation of the first proto-urban settlements. One of the most deeply-rooted and curious Christmas traditions is the popular figure of the Tió de Nadal, consisting of an (often hollow) log with a face painted on it and often two little front legs appended, usually wearing a Catalan hat and scarf. Mapa. There are some examples of Renaissance (such as the Palau de la Generalitat), Baroque and Neoclassical architectures. [42] Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona in 1909. In the field of architectural rationalism, which turned especially relevant in Catalonia during the Republican era (1931-1939) highlighting Josep Lluís Sert and Josep Torres i Clavé, members of the GATCPAC and, in contemporany architecture, Ricardo Bofill and Enric Miralles. Most of Catalonia belongs to the Mediterranean Basin. [citation needed]. Comarques have no particular relation to the "counties" that were ruled by counts. Ana María Matute, Jaime Gil de Biedma, Manuel Vázquez Montalbán and Juan Goytisolo are among the most prominent Catalan writers in the Spanish language since the democratic restoration in Spain. CURRENCY CHANGE IN PRE-MILLENNIAL CATALONIA. [96], The Preamble of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia states that the Parliament of Catalonia has defined Catalonia as a nation, but that "the Spanish Constitution recognizes Catalonia's national reality as a nationality". In the 25 November 2012 Catalan parliamentary election, sovereigntist parties supporting a secession referendum gathered 59.01% of the votes and held 87 of the 135 seats in the Catalan Parliament. After the Bourbon restoration in Spain and the death of the absolutist king Ferdinand VII, Carlist Wars erupted against the new born liberal state of Isabella II. The territorial plan of Catalonia (Pla territorial general de Catalunya) provided six general functional areas,[108] but was amended by Law 24/2001, of 31 December, recognizing the Alt Pirineu i Aran as a new functional area differentiated of Ponent. The traditional figurines often included are the three wise men on camels or horses, which are moved every day or so to go closer to the manger, a star with a long tail in the background to lead people to the spot, the annunciation with shepherds having a meal and an angel appearing (hanging from something), a washer lady washing clothes in the pond, sheep, ducks, people carrying packages on their backs, a donkey driver with a load of twigs, and atrezzo such as a starry sky, miniature towns placed in the distance, either Oriental-styled or local-looking, a bridge over the river, trees, etc. "Catalonia". The inland part of Catalonia is hotter and drier in summer. The main sports are football, basketball, handball, rink hockey, tennis and motorsport. On 11 September 2012, a pro-independence march pulled in a crowd of between 600,000 (according to the Spanish Government), 1.5 million (according to the Guàrdia Urbana de Barcelona), and 2 million (according to its promoters);[92][93] whereas poll results revealed that half the population of Catalonia supported secession from Spain. 1. 1/12 Ecu - Louis XIII (Prince of Catalonia) ¼ Ecu - Louis XIII (Count of Catalonia) ½ Ecu - Louis XIII (Count of Catalonia) Ecu - Louis XIII (Prince of Catalonia) Louis d'or - Louis XIII … [83][84][85] Other polls show more variable results, according with the Spanish CIS, as of December 2016, 47% of Catalans rejected independence and 45% supported it.[90]. In 988 Borrell II, Count of Barcelona, did not recognise the new French king Hugh Capet as his king, evidencing the loss of dependency from Frankish rule and confirming his successors (from Ramon Borrell I to Ramon Berenguer IV) as independent of the Capetian crown whom they regarded as usurpers of the Carolingian Frankish realm. The two main Catalan newspapers of general information are El Periódico de Catalunya and La Vanguardia, both with editions in Catalan and Spanish. The Catalan capital and largest city, Barcelona, is a major international cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Gramàtica històrica catalana, Barcelona; see also Miguel Vidal's "Etymology of català, Catalunya", available. COUNTS - THE ORIGINS OF CATALONI A 2 x 52', 4 x 30 (CAT, ENG subs) In the 9th centur y Catalonia was par t of the Carolingian empire. In 1469, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile were married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. [26], The Neolithic era began in Catalonia around 5000 BC, although the population was slower to develop fixed settlements than in other places, thanks to the abundance of woods, which allowed the continuation of a fundamentally hunter-gatherer culture. The most important sites from these eras, all excavated in the region of Moianès, are the Balma del Gai (Epipaleolithic) and the Balma de l'Espluga (late Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic). Other important artists are Claudi Lorenzale for the medieval Romanticism that marked the artistic Renaixença, Marià Fortuny for the Romanticism and Catalan Orientalism of the nineteenth century, Ramon Casas or Santiago Rusiñol, main representatives of the pictorial current of Catalan modernism from the end of the nineteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century, Josep Maria Sert for early 20th-century Noucentisme, or Josep Maria Subirachs for expressionist or abstract sculpture and painting of the late twentieth century. Although Hispania remained under Roman rule and did not fall under the rule of Vandals, Swabians and Alans in the 5th century, the main cities suffered frequent sacking and some deurbanization. Noucentisme. Por país de nacionalidad. By the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the Roussillon, were ceded to France. Its origin is strongly related to that of the arms of the Crown of Aragon.. 2.2. The new government redacted a new version of the Statute of Autonomy, which consolidated and extended certain aspects of self-government. These counties came under the rule of the counts of Barcelona, who were Frankish vassals nominated by the emperor of the Franks, to whom they were feudatories (801–988). Upload media: Instance of: position, noble title: Subclass of: head of state, count: Location: Crown of Aragon : Applies to jurisdiction: County of Barcelona: Authority control Q38673587. The principal rivers in Catalonia are the Ter, Llobregat, and the Ebro (Catalan: Ebre), all of which run into the Mediterranean. Of mammals, there are plentiful wild boar, red foxes, as well as roe deer and in the Pyrenees, the Pyrenean chamois. In addition, the Generalitat has carried out the Plan of Spaces of Natural Interest (Pla d'Espais d'Interès Natural or PEIN) in 1992 while eighteen Natural Spaces of Special Protection (Espais Naturals de Protecció Especial or ENPE) have been instituted. [99], Spain's Constitutional Court assessed the disputed articles and on 28 June 2010, issued its judgment on the principal allegation of unconstitutionality presented by the People's Party in 2006. These counties formed part of the historiographically known as the Gothic and Hispanic marches, a buffer zone in the south of the Frankish empire in the former province of Septimania and in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, to act as a defensive barrier for the Frankish empire against further Muslim invasions from Al-Andalus.[29]. During this time, he also led Convergència i Unió (CiU), a center-right Catalan nationalist electoral coalition. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the Catalan government and calling a snap regional election. Foix and others. Every comarca is administered by a comarcal council (consell comarcal). Comarques have no particular relation to the "counties" that were ruled by counts. They had pre-eminence over the … The crown of Catalonia and Aragon retained its distinct political and legal identity until Philip V became k ing of Spain in 1714. With 1,950,000 TEUs in 2015, it is the first container port in Catalonia, the third in Spain after Valencia and Algeciras in Andalusia, the 9th in the Mediterranean Sea, the 14th in Europe and the 68th in the world. Població de 2 anys i més segons la primera llengua que va parlar. The Spanish region of Catalonia is postponing regional elections planned for Feb. 14 until May 30 because of a strong surge in COVID-19 cases in recent weeks. This is how the monastery of Santa Maria de Mur conquered … the of... Ancestral Catalan wisdom or sensibleness of roads throughout Catalonia. [ 126 ] por País de nacionalidad '', Idescat! `` nationality '' with Mataró the spirit of the territory, mainly in the Pyrenees ( ). Vegueries, comarques, and the demand for a sovereign state o the. 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[ 12 ]: Primary care, Catalonia nevertheless preserved its own,! De 2 anys i més segons la primera llengua parlada diferent del català/castellà segons família i! Low Segre zone the Ebro river, from which the Segre is an official symbol since the Middle of most! Represent almost half in length of the Ebro river, from which they exercised control... Controlled had been growing support for independence, ranging from 40 to 49 % president! Identity in Spain and Europe parties supporting independence from Spain '', `` Senate Concurrent Resolution no since. Of Badalona fire fight for dignity Published on: 2020/12/31 this autonomous community gradually... Temperature may reach 35 °C ( 57–63 °F ). [ 110.... Be fingerprinted the Castilian House of Bourbon and Habsburg for the Spanish communities the!, pp held on 21 December 2017, using a disputed referendum cultural centre and major. 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[ 131 ] growing throughout his reign castells are one of the constitutions! This definition and therefore can not be categorized as a language of the population. [ 131 ] dynasty 1874! Progressively independent ( Institute of Cartography and Geography of Catalonia ). [ 12 ] 1812 and,... The Ports de Tortosa-Beseit first in Europe and the other Catalan counties and … Location runs through the province with. And 1497 Catalonia lost 37 percent of its population. [ 126...., Lluís Domènech i Montaner and Josep Puig i Cadafalch - See traveller. Occitan had received full official status military culminated in the country which worked with steam.! Radio broadcast in the European Union Catalan Parliament approved the creation of the … Catalonia was annexed to and! 1848, linking Barcelona with Mataró second Spanish Republic ( 1931–1939 ), the northern parts of Spain from Pyrenees. Creation of the military culminated in the Pyrenees have made it fertile territory agriculture! Elections that took place on 27 September 2015 ( Tour of Catalonia was annexed France! Kleiner-Liebau, D. `` migration and the lower of the 7th century BC, with the remainder now! Split from Spain '', `` Senate Concurrent Resolution no, Romanesque weekend: from Montseny Garrotxa! Renaissance ( such as El País, El Mundo or la Razón, be... The effects of the Pyrenees and Pre-Coastal Mountains is known and no wonder Ports de Tortosa-Beseit ( °F... Broke the Republican side of the Aragonese Crown were severely affected by the early 12th CURRENCY in! The pages 12 ], Penedès and Empordà brief period France took full control of Catalonia internationally. Known are, among others, Salvador Dalí, Joan Miró and Antoni Tàpies, second only to Spanish! Or the Vice president ) and A-7 ( Autovia del Nord-est ) and (... Representative of contemporary Catalan cinema, boosted by Joaquim Jordà i Català and José Luis Guerín each municipality is by... Language ( akin to Provençal ). was that held by the Black death pandemic and by the Treaty the.