First of all, Mr. Simpson realizes that he will have to do some careful mapping, or determining how the curriculum will fit within the calendar of the school year. Orrington leaders’ nascent efforts to learn from these co-teachers about relying less on technical interventions and more on their experimentation and reflections demonstrates an adaptive mindset. In the context of standards-based curriculum reform, educational leaders faced adaptive challenges as they encouraged teachers’ adoption of the written curriculum in technical ways. These included lack of resources, inadequate training and heavy workloads. This role is important given that educational leaders are often teachers’ main sources of knowledge on standards-based instruction (Supovitz et al., 2016) and set the tone for the type of culture around curriculum use (Ylimaki, 2012). Let’s take funding which is essential for the successful implementation of a curriculum. Factor 1: Curriculum implementation must be done the way it was designed to be done (i.e., with fidelity); in a consistent manner; and with challenges to students to … study that [drove staff] nuts because our kids are not getting the whole story behind it . The second feature commonly occurs in educational systems, where pressures from multiple levels (e.g., legislatures, governors, teachers’ unions, and parents) all converge on educational leaders (Wirt & Kirst, 2009). Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Katie Pak, Morgan S. Polikoff, Laura M. Desimone, and Erica Saldívar García, article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (. Particularly at the elementary school level, it is important to keep family abreast of curricular goals and instructional methods. Moreover, some of this technical reliance (c) diverted responsibility away from fixed mindsets around student ability levels and cultural responsiveness and (4) oversimplified the inherent complexities of differentiating instruction. If challenges experienced by educators, such as inadequate resources, financial constraints and lack of training, are not addressed, this - Definition & Policy, What is Indigent Defense? Second, co-teaching teams shared how they learned to flexibly adapt the district’s guidelines for curriculum implementation if they “think there are changes that need to be made to what we’ve done in the past or what decisions have been made in the past,” and then document these learnings “every year as a teacher team” (teacher interview, Orrington) to benefit both themselves and others in the future. It needs the … Curriculum implementation is the act of translating the curriculum document into action in the classroom by the teacher and so concluding any issue on curriculum ... challenge to the teacher as a curriculum implementer. Several limitations of our study should be noted. We focus on educational leaders (e.g., district administrators, principals) as they are among those who can strategically mobilize people, resources, policies, and procedures in support of a well-managed vision for instructional change (DeMatthews 2014; Leithwood et al., 2004; Ylimaki, 2012). A research team of graduate students, which achieved at least 80% interrater reliability after coding transcripts together in at least five sessions, coded the data using a standard code list developed in the first 2 years of the study. Addressing the challenges. Several teachers in Palisades alluded to this history of the curricular resources oscillating from scripted to unscripted: We went from being told exactly what we had to say, when we had to say it, how many minutes we had to say it, to like, all right, it’s a free for all . 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Quiz & Worksheet - Curriculum Implementation Steps & Issues, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Curriculum Planning Process & Development, Multicultural Curriculum & Instruction Development, Refining Curriculum To Promote Student Learning, GACE Curriculum & Instruction (300): Practice & Study Guide, Biological and Biomedical {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons Excess contents to be covered by both the students and teachers posses serious challenges in curriculum implementation. Lean Library can solve it. What is Curriculum Implementation? Exacerbating this issue is the second adaptive challenge of competing messaging around the instructional values promoted by the district. 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Geographic limitations: Geography influences a number of factors that can challenge program implementation and operations, such as isolation and weather. Thus, educational leaders must explore new ways of adaptively providing PD associated with the curricular resources so that teachers are developing the skills of analyzing and responding to these curricular gaps, and so they come to understand the alignment of new curriculum with existing standards-based initiatives. Table 4 Technical and Adaptive Strategies Across Four Districts. It often helps to consult with learning specialists or guidance counselors to find out what adjustments you might make. Attempts have been made in … These themes were strengthened in multiple dialogic engagement sessions with the writing team and the broader Center, where individuals asked probing questions, reflected differently on the issues, and presented alternative hypotheses (see Ravitch & Carl, 2016). Project Gutenberg is the oldest (and MORGAN S. POLIKOFF is an associate professor of education at Rossier. of curriculum fidelity to a new phonics program, which created a need to identify barriers preventing full curriculum implementation. The attained curriculum refers to the understanding students actually gain during a lesson. Mr. Simpson heartily agrees. It also helps to adaptively uncover some of the root causes behind teachers’ issues with these technical resources, as some of these root causes address teachers’ mindsets about student ability and cultural interests (i.e., the adaptive challenge of speaking the unspeakable) and the labor of differentiation (i.e., the adaptive challenge of oversimplifying complex problems). California Teaching Requirements For Out-of-State Teachers, Nathan Kono, Aspiring Teachers of Color Fellowship Winner, Talks to, Bonus Program for Teachers Eliminated in NYC, Beyond Teaching: New Ways for Teachers to Get Paid, Improve Your Teaching: 10 Best Blogs for Teachers, House Education Committee Approves Merit Pay for Teachers. . An overview of the districts’ curriculum implementation process is outlined in Table 4. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Technical challenges are those that can be solved through the application of existing solutions, pro-cedures, tools, and expert guidance. . What Can You Do With a Master's in Sports Psychology? We do not directly observe leader behavior but instead obtained information about leader behavior through interviews with a range of respondents in each district. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. To tackle these challenges adaptively, educational leaders need to surface some of the root causes behind educators’ mindsets around student ability levels and differentiation; invite conversation around the “nondiscussables” such as implicit biases; collaborate with their educators on designing new systems, structures, and beliefs that better support rigorous and differentiated instruction; and stay focused on this adaptive learning instead of turning the work over to technical programs. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Palisades teachers similarly found fault with curricular texts specifically tailored to meet the standards, as they incorporated “snippets of text . Challenges Of Curriculum Implementation In Kenya sources for free books on the web, with over 30,000 downloadable free books available in a wide variety of formats. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} This improvement journey requires a blend of technical and adaptive leadership, given the technical and adaptive aspects of the challenges that educators experience when learning to implement the standards. The leadership goal is to surface these difficult conversations to move organizations forward, despite the likelihood of such conversations generating conflict (Heifetz et al., 2009). and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. While there were teachers across all districts who appreciated the rigor of the provided curriculum for exposing them to the demands of the standards, there were also teachers who expressed that their students did not have the “prerequisite skills, prior knowledge, or background experience to keep up with the pacing” in the curricula (teacher interview, Orrington). challenges and problems that educators encounter during the implementation process and how these challenges and problems are overcome” (Shilling, 2013; p.21). imaginable degree, area of This type of adaptive work should be more widespread, ongoing, and directly tied to the root causes of the challenges that cause teachers to rely too much on technical resources for differentiation. Students' needs should always take precedence over a predetermined curriculum, but it can be challenging when students seem unable to access your curricular goals and strategies. Or we’re not sure if we’re gonna get in trouble for not doing certain . This principal therefore found a separate curriculum for their teachers to use and disregarded the district resource. It was like, “Oh, my god.” It was surprising. Specifically, the study sought to find out; 1) the extent to which teachers are prepared for the 21st century classroom, 2) the extent to which classrooms are adapted to 1 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION: CHALLENGES FOR NIGERIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Iboro Ukpong and Nsidibe S. Udoh Abstract Curriculum development is the curriculum planning process that All rights reserved. In our data analysis thus far, we focused on observations of challenges related to curriculum implementation, as well as interpretations of why adaptive challenges persisted. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? A solely technical view of curriculum implementation would suggest that high-quality curricular resources, technical PD on how to use the curriculum, and traditional methods to manage the implementation process will lead to improved student learning outcomes. Her research includes policy implementation, educational leadership, school improvement, and leadership for critical social change. Often called instructional leadership, this role asserts educational leaders’ influence over teaching and learning (Boyce & Bowers, 2018). Many of these challenges reflect Australia’s federal political system where the states or jurisdictions have constitutional power over education. What are all the little pieces that lead up to that?” As summarized by one Palisades principal. While the expectation for teachers generally was to implement the curriculum provided to them so that students can benefit from the exposure to common instructional language and pedagogy across classrooms and schools (principal interview, Orrington), educational leaders in Palisades, Maple Town, and to some extent, Orrington struggled with building their teachers’ capacities to deviate from the curriculum to adapt to students’ needs. To unlock this lesson you must be a Member. . Challenges in Curriculum Implementation Curriculum is a political agreement; it outlines the government’s national agenda (IBE, 2013). We conclude with a set of insights and implications for educational leaders approaching curriculum implementation in both technical and adaptive ways. Learning how to do effective curriculum implementation is a key aspect of teaching in a school setting. Specific materials that are especially related to certain challenges are listed below. Sometimes, how curricular reform is discussed or approached suggests an oversimplification of the immensity of the challenge underlying the process of changing the instructional core. Curriculum implementation-related challenges included inadequate weight given to CSE when integrated into other subjects, insufficient adaptation of the curriculum to local contexts, and limited stakeholder participation in curriculum development. By continuing to browse Once educational leaders understand these causes, they can adaptively explore solutions that will more effectively enable differentiation in its ideal form. It needs the support of both the The adaptive leadership challenge in this instance is to determine how to close that gap without it causing too much disruption (Heifetz et al., 2009). The adaptive leadership challenge is identifying how to make choices that sometimes serve competing goals (Heifetz et al., 2009) so that curricular programs coherently “mesh with the prevailing pedagogical perspective and stance” on instruction in the district (Remillard & Taton, 2015, p. 56). Curriculum is typically conceptualized in three distinct ways (see Kurz et al., 2010), as it moves closer to the classroom. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Some conceptions also include the written curriculum (e.g., textbooks and supplementary materials; see Tarr et al., 2006). We believe that much can be learned from evaluations of educational leaders who recognize the adaptive complexities of curriculum reform and proactively seek to alter their leadership behaviors to account for these complexities (Wolfe, 2015). The implementation of the National Curriculum Statement was problematic to the culture of teaching and learning in various South African schools. These 3 years were buoyed by the instructional coaching infrastructure developed by the district superintendent, where the coaches were specifically tasked with supporting curriculum implementation. Yet, as one leader in Palisades described, this approach frequently results in diluting the learning for students rather than providing them with the grade-level experiences they deserve: What we really don’t like and what we tell principals what they shouldn’t see is the ESL [English as a second language] teacher just kind of finding random worksheets, like from Teachers Pay Teachers, that they say, “Oh, but it’s aligned to the standards.” Well, it’s not. However, most of the district and school leadership strategies documented in the educational reform literature tend exclusively toward technical approaches to change (Theoharis, 2007; Trujillo, 2013), which have limited impact on issues that require adaptive attention. 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